Labor union grievances are complaints or issues raised by members of a labor union concerning their employment rights, working conditions, or contract provisions. These grievances are typically filed by the union on behalf of the affected employees, and are usually based on a perceived violation or misinterpretation of the collective bargaining agreement between the union and the employer.

When a labor union files a grievance, it initiates a formal dispute resolution process that may involve negotiations, mediation, arbitration, or even legal action. The goal of the grievance process is to resolve the dispute and ensure that the collective bargaining agreement is enforced. The process can be time-consuming and may require significant effort from both the union and the employer, but it is an important tool for protecting the rights of workers and maintaining a fair and equitable workplace.

Unfair Labor Practice (ULP)

Examples of Title 5 unfair labor practices by federal agencies include:

  • Interfering with, restraining, or coercing employees in the exercise of their right to organize or bargain collectively.
  • Refusing to bargain in good faith with a federal employee union.
  • Discriminating against employees on the basis of their union activity or support for a particular union.
  • Refusing to comply with an arbitrator’s award or decision.
  • Failing to cooperate with the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) in conducting an investigation or complying with an order.


An Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) complaint is a formal complaint filed by an employee, former employee, or applicant for federal employment alleging discrimination or retaliation based on race, color, national origin, sex, age, disability, religion, or other protected factors. The complaint is filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) or the agency’s internal EEO office.

The process for filing a federal EEO complaint typically involves the following steps:

  1. Contacting an EEO counselor within 45 days of the alleged discrimination or retaliation to try to resolve the issue informally.

  2. If the issue is not resolved through counseling, filing a formal complaint with the agency’s EEO office or the EEOC within 15 days of receiving notice of the right to file a complaint.

  3. An investigation will be conducted, which may involve interviews with witnesses, review of documents, and other evidence gathering.

  4. After the investigation is completed, a report will be issued and the complainant will have an opportunity to request a hearing before an EEOC administrative judge.

  5. The administrative judge will issue a decision, which may include remedies such as back pay, reinstatement, compensatory damages, and attorney fees.

  6. If the complainant is not satisfied with the administrative judge’s decision, they may appeal to the EEOC’s Office of Federal Operations or file a lawsuit in federal court.

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